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slave trade eye witness account

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Slave Trade:

 

the African Connection, ca 1788

 

The labor-intensive agriculture of the New World demanded a large workforce. Crops such as sugar cane, tobacco and cotton required an unlimited and inexpensive supply of strong backs to assure timely production for the European market. Slaves from Africa offered the solution. The slave trade between Western Africa and the America’s reached its peak in the mid-18th century when it is estimated that over 80,000 Africans annually crossed the Atlantic to spend the rest of their lives in chains. Of those who survived the voyage, the final destination of approximately 40% was the Caribbean Islands. Thirty-eight percent ended up in Brazil, 17% in Spanish America and 6% in the United States.

 

Young boys wait to be loaded
aboard a slave ship

It was a lucrative business. A slave purchased on the African coast for the equivalent of 14 English pounds in bartered goods in 1760 could sell for 45 pounds in the American market.

A slave’s journey to a life of servitude often began in the interior of Africa with his or her capture as a prize of war, as tribute given by a weak tribal state to a more powerful one, or by outright kidnapping by local traders. European slave traders rarely ventured beyond Africa’s coastal regions. The African interior was riddled with disease, the natives were often hostile and the land uncharted. The Europeans preferred to stay in the coastal region and have the natives bring the slaves to them.

“Most of the Negroes shipped off from the coast of Africa are kidnapped.”

Dr. Alexander Falconbridge served as the surgeon aboard a number of slave ships that plied their trade between the West African coast and the Caribbean in the late 1700s. He described his experiences in a popular book published in 1788. He became active in the Anti-Slavery Society and was appointed Governor of a colony established for freed slaves on the coast of modern-day Sierra Leone. His service was brief as he died in 1788 shortly after his appointment. We join his story as he describes the process through which the native African looses his freedom:

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“There is great reason to believe, that most of the Negroes shipped off from the coast of Africa, are kidnapped. But the extreme care taken by the black traders to prevent the Europeans from gaining any intelligence of their modes of proceeding; the great distance inland from whence the Negroes are brought; and our ignorance of their language (with which, very frequently, the black traders themselves are equally unacquainted), prevent our obtaining such information on this head as we could wish. I have, however, by means of occasional inquiries, made through interpreters, procured some intelligence relative to the point. . . . From these I shall select the following striking instances: While I was in employ on board one of the slave ships, a Negro informed me that being one evening invited to drink with some of the black traders, upon his going away, they attempted to seize him. As he was very active, he evaded their design, and got out of their hands. He was, however, prevented from effecting his escape by a large dog, which laid hold of him, and compelled him to submit. These creatures are kept by many of the traders for that purpose; and being trained to the inhuman sport, they appear to be much pleased with it.

I was likewise told by a Negro woman that as she was on her return home, one evening, from some neighbors, to whom she had been making a visit by invitation, she was kidnapped; and, notwithstanding she was big with child, sold for a slave. This transaction happened a considerable way up the country, and she had passed through the hands of several purchasers before she reached the ship.

 

A man and his son, according to their own information, were seized by professed kidnappers, while they were planting yams, and sold for slaves. This likewise happened in the interior parts of the country, and after pass­ing through several hands, they were purchased for the ship to which I belonged. It frequently happens that those who kidnap others are themselves, in their turns, seized and sold.

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. . . During my stay on the coast of Africa, I was an eye-witness of the following transaction: a black trader invited a Negro, who resided a lit­tle way up the country, to come and see him. After the entertainment was over, the trader proposed to his guest, to treat him with a sight of one of the ships lying in the river. The unsuspicious countryman read­ily consented, and accompanied the trader in a canoe to the side of the ship, which he viewed with pleasure and astonishment. While he was thus employed, some black traders on board, who appeared to be in the secret, leaped into the canoe, seized the unfortunate man, and dragging him into the ship, immediately sold him.

The preparations made at Bonny by the black traders, upon set­ting out for the fairs which are held up the country, are very consider­able. From twenty to thirty canoes, capable of containing thirty or forty Negroes each, are assembled for this purpose; and such goods put on board them as they expect will be wanted for the purchase of the number of slaves they intend to buy.

When their loading is com­pleted, they commence their voyage, with colors flying, and music playing; and in about ten or eleven days, they generally return to Bonny with full cargoes. As soon as the canoes arrive at the trader’s landing place, the purchased Negroes are cleaned, and oiled with palm-oil; and on the following day they are exposed for sale to the captains.

A device used to control
unruly slaves

When the Negroes, whom the black traders have to dispose of, are shown to the European purchasers, they first examine them rela­tive to their age. They then minutely inspect their persons, and inquire into the state of their health, if they are afflicted with any infirmity, or are deformed, or have bad eyes or teeth; if they are lame, or weak in their joints, or distorted in the back, or of a slender make, or are narrow in the chest; in short, if they have been, or are afflicted in any manner, so as to render them incapable of much labor; if any of the foregoing defects are discovered in them, they are rejected. But if approved of, they are generally taken on board the ship the same evening. The purchaser has liberty to return on the following morning, but not afterwards, such as upon re-examination are found exceptionable.

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The traders frequently beat those Negroes which are objected to by the captains, and use them with great severity. It matters not whether they are refused on account of age, illness, deformity, or for any other reason. At New Calabar, in particular . . . the traders, when any of their Negroes have been objected to, have dropped their canoes under the stern of the vessel, and instantly be headed them, in sight of the captain.

As soon as the wretched Africans, purchased at the fairs, fall into the hands of the black traders, they experience an earnest of those dreadful sufferings which they are doomed in future to undergo. . . . They are brought from the places where they are pur­chased to Bonny, etc. in canoes; at the bottom of which they lie, hav­ing their hands tied with a kind of willow twigs, and a strict watch is kept over them. Their usage in other respects, during the time of the passage, which generally lasts several days, is equally cruel. Their allowance of food is so scanty, that it is barely sufficient to support nature. They are, besides, much exposed to the violent rains which frequently fall here, being covered only with mats that afford but a slight defense; and as there is usually water at the bottom of the canoes, from their leaking, they are scarcely ever dry.”

References:
   This eyewitness account appears in Falconbridge, Alexander, An Account of the Slave Trade on the Coast of Africa (1788); Curtin, Phillip D. Atlantic Slave Trade (1969); Matheson, William Law, Great Britain and the Slave Trade, 1839-1865 (1967).

How To Cite This Article:
“Slave Trade: the African Connection, ca 1788” EyeWitness to History, www.eyewitnesstohistory.com (2007).

 

 

 

Biafra

Fulani Terrorists Continues Their Genocidal Massacre In Ebonyi

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People slaughtered by Fulani Terrorists in Ebonyi State on 4th of june 2021

Again, Fulani Terror herdsmen sponsored, armed, and guarded by Nigeria Fulani-led federal government has continued their genocidal massacre of Biafrans in Ebonyi.

According to a  viral video online, a reporter can be heard saying that the Fulani Terrorists are not relenting in the quest to kill everyone in Ebonyi state.

This is about the 4th time in the last 6 months that Fulani terrorists have gone on the large-scale slaughter of Ebonyi people.

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He called on Eastern Security Network(ESN) to come to the aid of the Ebonyi people.  ESN was formed by the leader of the Indigenous People of Biafra, Mazi Nnamdi Kanu to safeguard Biafrans against marauding Fulani terrorists.

However, the Governor of Ebonyi State, Dave Umahi has been against the formation of ESN and has been working assiduously to eliminate ESN personnel from Ebonyi instead of supporting them.

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This led to the creation of the Ebubeagu Security Network to fight the ESN in Ebonyi and other Eastern states. Ebubeagu has never and does not have the capacity to confront Fulani Terror Herdsmen wielding automatic assault rifles given to them by the Nigerian government.

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Mali

Window Of Opportunity For Peace In Mali ‘Slowly Narrowing,’ Warns Secretary-General

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un in mali

20 September 2017 – Speaking at a ministerial meeting at United Nations Headquarters, Secretary-General António Guterres today voiced concern over the delayed implementation of the peace agreement in M

“We meet less than a year before the next presidential election,” said Mr. Guterres, stressing that the coming months will be an opportunity for Malians and their institutions to show their dedication to peace and the rule of law.

Noting that municipal elections in November last year were not held in all regions and suffered a low turnout, he encouraged the Malian authorities to ensure the success of the presidential election.

He added that numerous delays and slow implementation of critical provisions of the Agreement on Peace and Reconciliation in Mali are always a cause of concern, including the postponement of the review of the Constitution.

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Delays in security sector reform related to the redeployment of the reformed and reconstituted Malian defence and security forces in the centre and north are also to be noted.

Mr. Guterres added that a number of achievements were recorded in recent months encompassing security, development, reductions in community violence, efforts to prevent the recruitment of youth.

“Yet the country’s achievements – that are remarkable – remain fragile, especially in light of the recent confrontations between armed groups and recurring attacks,” he went on. “Trust is being tested but we welcome the signature, earlier today, of a ceasefire agreement between the two signatory movements which also re-emphasizes their commitment to the implementation of the peace agreement.”

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New institutions, processes and laws have yet to translate into significant improvements in the daily lives of Malians, the Secretary-General stated, adding that inclusivity, especially of women, youth and other under-represented social groups, remains insufficient, and constraints to humanitarian access persist.

“The window of opportunity for the Government to provide long-awaited peace dividends is slowly narrowing,” said Mr. Guterres.

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The UN chief also urged the international community to ensure unity of purpose in financially and logistically supporting regional undertaking, such as the G5 Sahel Joint Force, to combat terrorism and transnational organized crime because, if successful, the Force can not only contribute to an enabling environment for the UN peacekeeping mission in Mali to fully implement its mandate but also advance progress in the Malian peace process.

But the most sustainable solution remains the strengthening of Mali’s own security architecture, Mr. Guterres said, stressing that the absence of a comprehensive strategy for security sector reform needs to be urgently addressed.

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Mauritania

Mauritanian Minister Highlights Country’s Successful Efforts To Combat Terrorism

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Mauritania minister

19 September 2017 – In his address to the United Nations General Assembly, the Minister for Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Mauritania, Isselkou Ould Ahmed Izid Bih, welcomed the progress made in the fight against terrorism and migration through an approach based on dialogue and opennes

After heavy fighting in 2010 and 2011, and despite a complex regional situation, Mauritania has faced the threat of terrorism successfully. “We have strengthened our defensive capacities while respecting human rights and putting in place a policy of sustainable development,” he explained. In addition, Mauritania has succeeded in building a constructive dialogue with the opposition and civil society, improving governance and reforming institutions, particularly with regard to women’s rights.

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Mauritania, he continued, has reformed its legal frameworks on the basis of international agreements, in particular, to better combat terrorism. To this end, he noted the conclusion of agreements with some groups in order to allow their members to reintegrate into society in a productive way.

Mauritania, in collaboration with the International Organization for Migration (IOM), has eradicated illegal migration from its territory, the Minister continued. “We also set out a roadmap on the fight against terrorism, including through a social assistance program,” he said, adding that repatriation programmes have also been implemented for migrants, in order to enable them to return to the country under favourable conditions.

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The Minister also spoke about the problems caused by climate change in the Sahel region. In this regard, he encouraged all parties to the Paris Agreement on climate change to honour their commitments in order to limit the impacts of the phenomenon.

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Conflicts

Transitional Justice In Tunisia – A Painful but Necessary Step Forward

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Recent public hearings of  saw a painful period of collective introspection for the country’s people.

Tales of humiliations, torture, and rape committed over a near-60 year period—starting at around the time of Tunisia’s independence from France—were broadcast in eight live public hearing sessions from November 2016 to March 2017.

According to Refic Hodzic of the International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ), transitional justice processes generally take place in polarized contexts, in which there is resistance to change.

This has proven true in Tunisia, where the TDC and its chair have been the target of attacks by political and media leaders, mainly those linked to the old regime, over their operating costs and financial management.

Some have also criticized the choice of victims in the public hearings, arguing that the majority are Islamist activists, though, given that Islamists were the main oppressed group under the old secular regime, their over-representation here makes sense.

The hearings are the only publicly visible component of the commission, which has received 62,641 cases to date. It was established following the Tunisian revolution, which led to the removal of long-standing president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and initiated the wider Arab Spring.

Tunisia was unique among Arab nations in seeing a peaceful transition to a democratic system.

Six years into this process, Tunisia has successfully written a new constitution, held two rounds of free and fair legislative elections, and democratically elected a president. It is now following the lead of other countries who have gone through major political upheavals.

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Based on investigations, testimony-gathering, and archival research, truth commissions were instrumental in the successful transitional periods of countries such as Argentina, Peru, and South Africa.

The TDC will produce a final report covering the period from 1955-2013, during which the successive oppressive administrations of Habib Bourguiba and Zine El Abidine Ben Ali turned Tunisia into a police state under one-party-rule.

The regimes imposed routine restrictions on freedom of speech, the press, and association, and relied heavily on intimidation, arbitrary arrests, beatings, torture, residential restrictions, and travel controls, alongside systemic corruption and economic marginalization.

Among the many women who spoke at the recent hearings was Latifa Matmati. Although her husband Kamal Matmati was killed in 1991, she only learned of his fate in 2011. For 20 years, she brought clothes to the police station where she believed he was held captive; for 20 years, the police did nothing to stop her.

Sami Brahim, meanwhile, told of his experience of abuse and torture while in jail: “All the prisoners were stripped, the young and the elderly. For an entire week, everyone was kept naked.”

He said that he was ready to forgive his torturers, but that forgiveness must be accompanied by an explanation of why he was subjected to these activities.

After giving the floor to the victims, the TDC does indeed plan to have torturers testify, to explain the mechanisms that fueled the repression.

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The hearings were an eye-opening experience for many Tunisians who didn’t know such abuses were taking place. Under the old regimes, information was tightly controlled and only those affected or linked to the victims were aware of what was going on.

According to Salwa El Gantri, ICTJ’s Head of Office in Tunisia, it is “difficult to make those who were never victims, who never had any links to victims, understand victims’ suffering and victims’ rights.”

The public hearings’ main purpose is thus to ensure those detached to hear the truth directly from the victims.
Despite millions tuning in via television, radio, and social media, it is still too early to assess the real impact on Tunisian society.

Beyond a widely shared sense of high emotion, the reactions have been diverse. While most Tunisians appreciated learning about the abuses directly from their victims, some have argued that it was the wrong time for the hearings to occur, as Tunisia faces more pressing issues, such as a stagnating economy, high corruption, and continuous terrorist attacks and other security threats.

While no one can deny the urgency of the various challenges Tunisia is facing and will continue to face for the next few years, compromise on the full implementation of the transitional justice is only likely to diminish efforts to prevent human rights abuses from repeating.

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Successful democratic transitions require deep change to occur on multiple fronts and concurrently.
As its work continues it will be of paramount importance for the TDC to assess the effectiveness of its operations and make any necessary improvements.

It should also keep up and even increase its communication efforts. This will help restore and maintain its credibility and relevance among the public, and challenge negative perceptions on the transitional justice process, as well as reform and democratization more broadly.

The successful creation of the pillars of the democratic transition was a remarkable achievement in a region crippled by an acute lack of individual freedoms, unemployment, corruption, war, and terrorism. To stay on track, ambitious reforms will be necessary.

Continued progress on transitional justice can help in this process, by improving the institutions that were once complicit in the abuses, primarily the police and judiciary.

If nothing else, the public hearings have successfully initiated a constructive national debate on these issues. They have also made some degree of contribution to repairing the population’s trust in justice and the ongoing transition.

Following his public testimony, Sami Brahim reported receiving thousands of letters and messages of support, while one of the TDC commissioners, Ibtihel Abdellatif, described the hearings in terms of a seismic event—“not an earthquake that destroys, but an earthquake that builds.”

This article was originally published by the Global Observatory of the International Peace Institute.

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Algeria

Algeria – 12 Years After In Terrorist Strongholds, Extremist Surrenders

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Algeria- An armed Algerian extremist left terrorist strongholds and surrendered to local military authorities after spending 12 years in the ranks of extremist groups.

Meanwhile, the Algerian army command announced dismantling thousands of anti-personnel mines, dating back to the French colonial period between 1830 and 1962.

On its official website, Algeria’s Ministry of National Defense described the terrorist who surrendered on Sunday in El Milia as “dangerous.”

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“D. Fares” aka “Abu Osama,” who had joined terrorist groups in 2005, had a Kalashnikov type machine gun, ammunition and a pair of binoculars, said a statement from the Defense Ministry.

The Ministry neither did mention the organization to which the terrorist belonged nor the crimes he may have committed while operating; however, the most famous extremist groups is known as al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, formerly known as the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC).

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In this context, the Ministry launched again an appeal to remaining terrorists to seize the opportunity and benefit from the regulations in force, like those who surrendered to the security authorities.

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Conflicts

Egypt – Central Sinai, Anti Terror Military Raid, 7 Killed, 3 Arrested

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The Egyptian military has carried anti-terrorist operations in Sinai on Monday.

The military spokesperson said that the military killed seven terrorists including two “leading members of terrorist groups,” in North Sinai in a statement published on social media.

He also said in a separate statement that three terrorist suspects were arrested in central Sinai.

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In both operations together, the spokesperson said it destroyed vehicles and motorcycles, a tunnel, and cannabis farms, in addition to dozens of “terrorist dens” where they found computers and material used to manufacture explosives.

Several photos of the operations were published. They included one photo of the three arrested suspects and a photo of the tunnel. The tunnel was reported to have been discovered in the border zone, among other tunnels reported to have been destroyed every month.

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In 2014, the military began working on a buffer zone in Rafah by removing residents’ houses with the aim of securing the borders with Gaza and putting an end to terror.

Via Daily News!

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Biafra

Biafra – Another Accused In The Ozubulu Church Terrorist Attack, Kingsley Ekeoma, A.K.A Escoba Clears The Air On Identity Mix-up, Sues Ait & Sun (Photos)

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Ozubulu Church Massacre: Kingsley Ekeoma ‘Escobar’ Not Connected To Incident, Demands Apology From Sun
The Ozubulu church massacre has opened a new discourse about poor journalism in Nigeria. And the rush to publish unfounded and unsubstantiated stories in the media by big and small media houses and even in blogs by bloggers, who most of the time copy from websites of big media outlets, hoping that they have verified their stories thoroughly before publishing.

When the incident happened at St Philip church in Ozubulu in Ekwusigo LGA of Anambra state, every media and the social media users jumped on it like every other news. But sooner than expected the truer picture is beginning to emerge that the two businessmen the media rushed to involve in the incident are not part of it.

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In one of them, another man whose name and the video was wrongly and defame-ably connected to the incident has threatened to sue The Sun Newspaper unless he gets a unreserved apology from the said newspaper firm or else he would proceed to the law court.


The issue is that The Sun newspaper published a video of Mr Kingsley Ekeoma as the man who was sought after by the killers, who carried out the unspeakable massacre in the house of God on Sunday in Ozubulu.

The problem here is that these stories were never verified before these media outlets went to the air to publish barrages of unsubstantiated information. The stories in so many cases were incoherent and names were badly mangled and got even unsuspecting readers confused as who is the real person and where he is actually from.

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The man, Kingsley Ekeoma, popularly known as Escobar who was alleged by the Nigerian media (Sun newspaper) and the Nigeria Police as the one purportedly involved in the drug dealers cartel which the gunmen that killed worshippers on Sunday were looking for, has come out to deny his involvement in the act.

Escobar has threatened to institute a lawsuit against The Sun newspaper and the police for defamation of character.
According to him, he is neither from Ozubulu nor has he ever visited South Africa in his lifetime.

Hear him: “Am neither the so called Bishop nor from Ozubulu in Anambra State. I have never been to South Africa nor Ozubulu before.

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I hail from Umuahia Abia State but base in Turkey. I am a legitimate businessman (Verified Real Estate Developer in Abuja).

I hereby call on the office of the Inspector General of police, DSS and other security related departments to do proper investigations into the massacre in Ozubulu. As for AIT and Sun Newspaper wait for me.

I know some stupid fools want to tarnish my reputations but I will follow up this case with my team of lawyers till the end.

My sympathy to the bereaved families and the truth must prevail. Please, my beloved friends, Help me and share this report around and viral. God bless you all.”

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Conflicts

IPOB Call For Referendum Is NOT War – Nigeria Never Stopped The War Against Biafra

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While Biafrans have been conducting their activities for restoration of Biafra peacefully; both locally and internationally, asking for a referendum, many one Nigerianists have been scaring the gullible with wars and rumors of war.
 
I want to make it categorically clear to everyone that referendum is not war and that the Biafra war never really ended as Nigerian government has systematically continued to eliminate Biafrans in every way possible and at any given opportunity. The reality is that, while the Biafrans stopped fighting, the Nigerian government have been killing Biafrans in different ways. The following are some of the ways, Nigeria government have been killing
 
1. AN ESTIMATED 90% OF THOSE WHO DIE IN NIGERIAN ROADS DAILY ARE BIAFRANS
 
They made sure that the industries in Biafraland does not function and as a result, Biafrans must travel out of their homeland to make living. They made sure that goods are not imported through Biafran shores so that Biafrans must travel to Lagos to bail their goods at a rate 3 times higher than what the Yorubas and Hausas pay at the same ports. Everyday hundreds of people die on Nigerian roads in different ways. Have you ever asked yourself who are those dying on the roads every day, since there is in existent or accurate statistical data in Nigeria? An estimated 90% of those who die in Nigerian roads daily are Biafrans. The average number of Biafrans who lose their lives in Nigerian highways while trans-versing the length and breadth of the country to make ends meet, far exceeds the number that will die in a well defined war. So stop scaring us with war because we are at war already.
 
2. LACK OR INADEQUATE HEALTH FACILITIES, PERSONNEL AND DRUGS.
 
About 95% of deaths related to illness in hospitals or at home in Biafraland was caused by the lack of modern drugs, no modern diagnostic equipments and because our best doctors and nurses has traveled to Abuja, Lagos and abroad to take care of the sick while our sick ones have no one attend to them. Do you know that many of your dead ones would have been saved, had it been we have a real hospital like the ones your politicians run to in Europe and America?. The worst part is that, this is a well planned strategy by Nigerian government to exterminate Biafrans, but the gullible will never understand this no matter how educated they claim to be.
 
3. EVER ASKED YOURSELF THE OWNERS OF THE VEHICLES BEING ADVERTISED BY CUSTOMS ALL THE TIME?
 
Unfortunately these abandoned properties belong to very hardworking Biafrans abroad. Some of them have committed suicide as a result of the seizure of their hard earned goods. Some have died of high Blood Pressure. Some have gone mad because some of these good equates to decades of savings. Yes, years of hardwork by Biafrans, that is what you see being advertised by devilish Nigerian customs. Sometimes they kill the owners of this vehicles, just because he or she is a Biafran, after all nobody will say anything. Now which other war is greater than this?
 
4. FULANI HERDSMEN ARE GOING FROM COMMUNITY TO COMMUNITY KILLING PEOPLE.
 
Didn’t you hear of Agatu genocide, Uzo-Uwani and other communities in Enugu state that were wiped out by these state sponsored terrorist group? Yet not even a single Fulani Herdsmen has been arrested.What other war are you looking for?
 
5. EVERY NOW AND THEN BIAFRANS WILL BE ROUNDED UP AND MASSACRED IN THE STREETS OF NORTHERN NIGERIA
 
Biafrans are killed daily in northern Nigeria. Women and girls are raped and adopted daily and nothing will come out of it. Yet you think you live in peace times in Nigeria. You think there is a greater war. How about Ezu River, National High School Aba, Nkpor 30th may 2016, Portharcourt 20th January 2017? Go and find out how many lost their lives and how many are still in hospital. Now, define war?
 
6. BIAFRAN PROPERTIES, MERCHANDISE, ARE BURNT AND DESTROYED EVERY NOW AND THEN IN ABUJA, LAGOS AND JOS.
 
Have you forgotten the estate with more than 500 Duplexes at airport road abuja that was leveled by Federal capital authorities in 2013? What about the hauses destroyed by El Rufai During Obasanjo Regime? Who owned those houses? Hausa Fulani or Yoruba? No! answer for yourself. Yet you think there is a greater war than this. How many markets has been looted and burnt in lagos since Ambode came in? Were they allowed to take their goods. Why did they destroy the markets in the middle of the Night? How many times has jos main market been set ablaze? Whow are the merchants in Jos main market? What exacltly is the meaning of war to you?
 
7. ZAKI BIAM AND ODI GENOCIDE BY OLUSEGUN OBASANJO AND BOMBING OF CALABAR WITH NAPALM BOMB BY MOHAMADU BUHARI
 
Ehee! You are waiting for fighters, bombers and missiles before you accept that war has not ended. Now explain to your friends what the meaning of bombing the entire town of Odi in Bayelsa state mean, if not war. Men, women and little children were wiped off the surface of the the earth by the war criminal, Olusegun Obasanjo. Men in Zaki Biam were completely wiped out by same Obasanjo. Napalm is a flammable liquid used in warfare. It is a mixture of a gelling agent and either gasoline (petrol) or a similar fuel. It was initially used as an incendiary device against buildings and later primarily as an anti-personnel weapon, as it sticks to skin and causes severe burns when on fire. First thing Buhari did, immediately he became the president of  Nigeria in 2015, was to bomb some parts of Cross River Biafraland with Napalm bomb. A bomb that is banned by the international community. Now, what other war are you talking about?
 
 
meanwhile, how may people have died in syria war? How many died in afghanistan? How many died in Sudan? Then find out how many Biafrans have died in Nigerian roads this year alone as a result of Nigerian police trying to extort money from them, not including accidents.
 
In conclusion, Biafrans are at war already and need not to be scared with wars and rumours of war. People die daily in war times and many more are dying daily in present day Biafraland occupied by Nigerian forces.

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Nigeria

Boko Haram Slaughter Dozens Of Nigerian Soldiers And Oil Explorers

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The prospects of oil exploration in the Lake Chad Basin of Nigeria in Borno state has suffered a major setback as Boko Haram have on Wednesday reportedly ambushed and attack a team of workers between Magumeri and Gubio on their way back to Maiduguri, security sources have revealed.

The source informed that the workers were ambushed around Borno Yeso area of Magumeri, adding that “security personal providing protection and security to the workers including geologists from the University of Maiduguri were also badly affected in the ambushed.

Another source speculated that out of the ten vehicles that conveyed the oil workers including security, only one ten seater bus returned to Maiduguri with five wounded people hospitalized at the State Specialist Hospital Maiduguri.

The source added that many have been feared dead or taken alive as no contact has so far been made by some of the members of the team during the attack

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There is no official statement from the military command in Borno State and the State Police Command on the attack.

A credible military source also informed our correspondent that some students of the Geology Department of the University, members of the Civilian Joint Task Force and other security personnel were victims of the attack

The Military source regretted that a conspiracy by head of the securities in trying to shield the information from the public.

His words: “As at 9:00 today Wednesday, no rescue plan has been put in place as far as I am aware from either the Nigeria Airforce component from the Theatre.

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“Between Wednesday and today, only ten of the victims can be confirmed to be alive. The five oil workers that escaped the attack Wednesday were hospitalized at the Borno State Specialist Hospital

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“Also this morning around 5:00 precisely five others who escaped also called and told us their location.

“The five victims at the state specialist told us that out of the ten vehicles conveying the team from magumeri, only their vehicle escaped the attack with bullets shots, flat tyres and smashed wind screen.

“They said the insurgents had chased them for more than ten kilometers adding that most of the vehicle and the persons involved did not make it out of Magumeri,” the source disclosed.

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The Nation recalls that President Buhari last year issued directives to the NNPC to resume the exploration of oil in the Lake Chad Basin and River Kolnami.

In compliance with the Presidential Directives, the GMD of NNPC sent a delegation to Borno State in May this year who paid courtesies on Gov. Kashim Shettima and the Shehu of Borno, Alhaji Abubakar El-Kanemi with the assurance that the exploration will begin in six weeks’ time as peace was gradually returning to the state.

The latest attack has however cast a dark shadow on the prospect of the continuation of the exploration with renewed Boko Haram attacks and the increasing insecurity in the Lake Chad.

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Chad – Fight Against Boko Haram, The Joint Multinational Force Gets A New Commander

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Several times commander in the military operations against Boko Haram, Major General Leo Irabor is a man full of experiences in the fight against terrorism

Nigeria’s Leo Irabor has replaced his compatriot Lo Adeosun as head of the Mixed Multinational Force (FMM) command. The official change of command ceremony was chaired by the Executive Secretary of the Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC), FMM Head of Mission Sanusi Imran Abdullahi, on Saturday, 08 July 2017, at the Headquarters of the Force in N’Djamena.

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Several times commander in the military operations against Boko Haram in Nigeria and in the border countries, Major General Leo Irabor is a man full of experiences in the fight against terrorism. His appointment comes within the framework of the strategies adopted by the Nigerian army in the fight against Boko Haram where several officers were appointed and assigned to military operations nationally and internationally. Major General Leo Irabo is the fourth commander of the FMM since his installation in Chad.

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Founded in 2015, the FMM has genuinely entered into action only from February 2016 when the first major operations were carried out to fight Boko Haram. At least four of them can be mentioned: that of 11 to 14 February 2016 in the Nigerian city of Ngoshe; The 24 February attack in the town of Kumshe in Nigeria near the Cameroon border considered as a rear base of Boko Haram; That of 16 March 2016 in the Cameroonian and Nigerian communities of Djibril and Zamga; And from 10 to 16 March 2016 in the Madawya Forest in Nigeria. Through its presence and actions, the FMM has contributed to a relative improvement in the security situation in the localities around Lake Chad.

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