Biafra, officially the Republic of Biafra, was a secessionist state in then southeastern Nigeria that existed from 30 May 1967 to 1970, taking its name from the Bight of Biafra (the Atlantic bay to its south). The inhabitants were mostly the Igbo people who led the secession due to economic, ethnic, cultural and religious tensions among the various peoples of Nigeria. The creation of the new state that was pushing for recognition was among the causes of the Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War.
The state was formally recognised by Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, and Zambia. Other nations which did not give official recognition but which did provide support and assistance to Biafra included Israel, France, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Rhodesia, South Africa and Vatican City. Biafra also received aid from non-state actors, including Joint Church Aid, Holy Ghost Fathers of Ireland, Caritas International, MarkPress and U.S. Catholic Relief Services.
After two-and-a-half years of war, during which over three million civilians died in fighting and from starvation resulting from blockades, Biafran forces under the slogan ‘no-victor, no-vanquish’ surrendered to the Nigerian Federal Military Government (FMG), and Biafra was reintegrated into Nigeria.