territory with clearly defined and demarcated international boundaries. With impunity some even question dismissively if British Southern Cameroons ever stood on its own feet as if their la Republique du Cameroun has ever. This is in the true nature of an imperial state. But truth is infinite. And those who fight in defense of truth are makers of progressive history and promoters of a better humanity. They are ever winners. For your clear understanding we will briefly examine this topic under the following sub heads; 1) UN Resolution 1608 of April 21, 1961, its import and what it stood to guard against. 2) Implication of no implementation of this UN Resolution. 3) The political and constitutional status of British Southern Cameroons at the material time of 1961. UN Resolution 1608 XV of April 21, 1961 was adopted by the UN General Assembly as a follow up of the successful conduct of the UN sponsored plebiscite in British Southern Cameroons. It was in recognition and defense of the distinctive identity of this UN Trust territory under international law. As a follow up of the UN plebiscite it was part and parcel of the UN conducted plebiscite. It was a legal instrument by the World Body meant to complete the exercise or experiment of bringing two distinct UN trust territories into a federal of equal status. This UNGA Resolution above everything else testifies to the irrefutable fact that the plebiscite, its shortcoming of limiting the people only to two choices notwithstanding, was inconclusive. It offered the British Southern Cameroonians only an opportunity to indicate their choice between Nigeria, and la Republique du Cameroun. The plebiscite vote was only a promise to be translated into a concrete act through mutual agreements based on fair negotiations. It is instructive to note that for this Resolution to pass the test tube of democracy, 64 Nations voted FOR, 23 AGAINST, and 10 Abstained. La Republique du Cameroun, supported by France and French-speaking Africa, except Mali mindful of its hidden agenda of annexing this UN Trust territory, voted against. By voting against, they still exercised their democratic rights. If la Republique du Cameroun voted against this important UN Resolution, which “unification” or “reunification” do they talk about today? Why did la Republique reject forming a federal of two equal states with British Southern Cameroons? Was it not because of their hidden agenda of annexation, colonial occupation and assimilation which they have faithfully implemented? Inherent in this UN Resolution was the promotion of the democratic principle of dialogue, equality of states, big and small, and the promotion of international cooperation to build world peace based on justice. This UN Resolution in concrete terms stood out to guard against any manner of annexation, assimilation, imperial domination of smaller states by the big and powerful states. To ensure that it was through consensus agreement and in fulfillment of the UN Charter, negotiations were not left in the hands of the concerned parties, namely, British Southern Cameroons, and la Republique du Cameroun, the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland as the Administering Authority of British Southern Cameroons was included. Without doubt since at the time British Southern Cameroons was not a distinct UN Member state, it was the UK as the Administering Authority that was to report the outcome of negotiations to the UNGA. Indeed, it was the UK that had the political and constitutional duty of submitting the Agreement, in other words, the Treaty of to the UN General Secretariat in fulfillment of Art. 102 of the UN Charter. For reasons unknown to the leaders and people of British Southern Cameroons this all important UN Resolution was never implemented. The UK never gave a report to the UN on the implementation of Resolution 1608. This implies that conditions for the formation of the UN envisioned federal of two distinct UN Trust territories to form the FEDERAL UNITED CAMEROON REPUBLIC of two equal states were not fulfilled. It is equally important we understand that in conformity with the spirit and letter of this UNGA Resolution, there could never have been a formed with the two distinct trust territories, without it being a federation of two states “EQUAL IN STATUS”. At the material time British Southern Cameroons was a self-governing trust territory founded on Westminster parliamentary democracy. In October 1960 it adopted its own constitution to usher it to independence. It had been declared ripe for independence by the UK Representative to the UN and by Commissioner J.O Field in his speech in 1958 during the Centenary celebration of the founding of the seaport town of Victoria. To terminate the Trusteeship Agreement, it was necessary that the independence of the Southern Cameroons be voted by the UN. Speaking before the vote was taken in the 4th Committee of the UNGA, Mr Traore (UN Permanent Representative of Mali) said, “If the Committee voted against the date of 1 October 1961, the Assembly would be placed in an extremely difficult position, as it would have before it a proposal requesting independence for Southern Cameroons but not specifying any date”. Opposed to this Mr. Okala (Foreign Minister of la Republique du Cameroun) “strongly protested against a vote”, which he regarded as “unconstitutional”. Failing to obtain wide support, he then declared “The delegation of Cameroun would not participate in the vote and would withdraw —” (United Nations General Assembly, XV Session, Official Records, Wednesday, 19 April 1961, New York, p.381). Okala’s, indeed la Republique du Cameroun’s opposition to the granting of independence by the UN before the formation of the federal by the two states, was a clear pointer to the effect that la Republique du Cameroun had already adopted a hidden agenda for the annexation of Southern Cameroons. Here la Republique du Cameroun back paddled on the pledge Mr. Ahmadou Ahidjo made at the UN in 1959 declaring that they were “not annexationists.” La Republique du Cameroun wanted the UN to hand over Southern Cameroons to it for outright annexation and colonisation. But we know that the UN is not an agent for the annexation of small weak states by powerful states. The mission of the UN is to guarantee freedom for all peoples and equality of all nations without which they can be no world democracy and peace. The date 1 October 1961 as Independence Day of Southern Cameroons was put to vote. It was overwhelmingly approved by 50 “YES”, 2 “NO” and 12 Abstentions by the powerful 4th Committee of the UN GA. 1st October 1961 was voted as Southern Cameroons INDEPENDENCE DAY. A Trust territory accedes to independence upon termination of trusteeship. To my mind it is only the UN that can testify as to whether trusteeship in British Southern Cameroons was terminated on 1st October 1961 or it was not. As UNGA Resolution 1608 of April 21, 1961 was not implemented, it is conclusive that there was no federal Constitution debated by the two distinct parliaments and signed into law by their respective elected leaders and no Act of signed to form the Federal United Cameroon Republic by J.N. Foncha for the British Southern Cameroons, and by Ahmadou Ahidjo for la Republique du Cameroun. Some of our fathers for example, J. N. Foncha, S. T. Muna, E. T.Egbe, among others, have stated clearly that no legal instrument exists binding Southern Cameroons and la Republique du Cameroun together. The idea of Southern Cameroons signing a blank cheque (which some lackeys defend cannot be revoked) does not therefore arise. The current struggle is to restore the one and indivisible British Southern Cameroons that has been annexed and colonially occupied by the one and indivisible la Republique du Cameroun, that is, le Camerounaise française which attained independence from France on January 1st 1960. The will of the people is supreme.
Cameroon: UN and the struggle for th restoration of Southern Cameroon
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