A $500mn oil-exploration deal in South Sudan has sparked a vicious escalation in violence, after a faction of South Sudanese rebels (SPLA-IO) captured four oil workers in the country’s north.
A spokesperson for the SPLA-IO told The New Arab they would not accept any oil drilling in their territory until after fighting had ended – accusing the government of prolonging the civil war with its oil revenues.
“We repeatedly warned the company and international workers in the oilfield to leave immediately before their lives fell into risk,” said William Gatjiath Deng.
Nigeria’s Oranto Petroleum secured the deal, gaining exploration rights to a 25,150 square kilometre area of Upper Nile State referred to as Block B3, on March 6.
“We believe the petroleum resources of Block B3 are vast,” said South Sudan’s Minister of Petroleum Ezekiel Lol Gatkuoth.
The area in question is not fully under the government’s control however – as rebel fighters have been engaged in some of the country’s most bitter fighting there for months.
In response to Oranto’s announcement, the SPLA-IO ordered “all national and international oil workers to immediately leave and evacuate” the oil fields in South Sudan.
“The brutal and ruthless regime in Juba is using billions of US dollars generated from the oil production and sale for purchasing more lethal arms,” the rebels said in a statement.
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Experts warn that the continued exploitation of South Sudan’s resources is one of the biggest reasons the civil war has lasted so long – leading to one of the worst man-made catastrophes of our time.
“The history of conflict and mass atrocities in Sudan and South Sudan is driven in large part by unchecked greed, manifesting itself primarily in the accumulation of wealth and power by the country’s leaders,” reads a new report by the Enough Project, a human rights NGO.
A famine was declared in parts of South Sudan on February 20. This was later attributed almost entirely to the government and its continued violence against its own citizens.
The Enough Project’s new report, titled “How the world’s newest country went awry”, documents how the country’s war-lords directly profit from massive government projects – feeding the money straight back into the sale of arms.
“The competing kleptocratic factions are fighting over a lucrative prize: control of the state, which in turn brings control over oil and other natural resource revenues.”
South Sudan derives 97 percent of its budget revenue from sales of oil, according to a UN panel of experts. From late March to late October 2016, oil revenues totalled about $243 million.
This money is largely used to invest in weapons for the country’s army – accused of rampant war-crimes and potential genocide by a recent UN report.
Yet despite frequent and repeated warnings coming from NGOs and independent inspectors, foreign investors routinely return to invest in Juba.
In February, the king of Morocco promised to pay $5 million for a project to relocate the country’s capital to a new area further north.
A representative for the Joint Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (JMEC), the organisation responsible for monitoring the country’s peace agreement, did not respond to a request for comment.
After gaining independence from Sudan in 2011, South Sudan descended into war in December 2013, leaving tens of thousands dead and 3.5 million people displaced.
UN Urges International Community To Help Restore Peace In South Sudan
September 23, 2017 (JUBA) – The secretary general of the United Nations has urged the global community to use all tools to compel the warring parties in South Sudan conflict to accept a peaceful settlement of the four-year armed conflict.
Antonio Guterres warned that South Sudan faces the spectre of complete economic collapse, yet the prevailing approach continues to be the pursuit of military victory.
“This will require determination and a commitment to use all the tools at our disposal to compel the parties to choose peace. We must continue to push for a peaceful resolution to the conflict with as much unity and pressure as we can apply. We must also continue to call for protection and humanitarian concerns to be addressed immediately, and for unhindered access to civilian populations,” Guterres said in a speech before the High-Level Meeting on South Sudan on Friday.
The United Nations, with the African Union (AU) and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), convened this high-level meeting on the margin of the UN Assembly General New York to agree on collective measures to support the revitalization of the political process in South Sudan.
The top UN official pointed out that the shared objective must be to determine what concrete measures the global community can take either collectively or individually to bring the fighting to an end and the parties back to dialogue.
He, also, called for globalized efforts to agree on how best they can support to regional efforts aimed at revitalizing the peace agreement, especially through the High-Level Revitalization Forum, and how can they apply leverage on the parties to heed the will of the international community.
The government-led national dialogue, he noted, remains to be seen whether it evolves into the type of broad and representative undertaking necessary for success.
“The onus is on the government to make this initiative genuine and inclusive, rather than something done simply as a token display of commitment to peace,” he said.
Stressing that “The delegations and individuals in this room have stood with the people of South Sudan over the course of the country’s tragic journey since independence”.
Meanwhile, the South Sudan’s First Vice-President, Taban Deng Gai who attended the meeting expressed commitment of the Transitional Government of National Unity to restore peace and unity to the people.
He further called on the partners to the peace agreement to allow access to the humanitarian aids.
Also, UN Undersecretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, Mark Lowcok said, humanitarian needs in South Sudan to prevent famine continue to remain a challenge.
He appealed for additional flexible and needs-based funding to South Sudan Humanitarian Response Plan and the South Sudan Regional Refugee Response Plan, which is underfunded.
Foreign Affairs Ministers from Uganda, Kenyan and Norway reaffirmed their government’s commitments to Support South Sudan people at the very hectic situation of war and hunger.
UN Member States, regional organizations, UN partners and members of the civil society expressed their concern to bring to an end the chaotic situation in South Sudan.
Sudan’s Armed Groups Condemn Kalma Killing, As South Darfur Government Accuses IDPs
September 22, 2017 (KHARTOUM) – The armed opposition groups condemned the killing of several residents of Kalama camp during a visit of President Omer al-Bashir to their area, while the South Darfur government accused armed elements in the camp of opening fire on the government troops.
The killing of three to eight people Friday has been condemned by three holdout groups that pointed accusing fingers at the government saying it shoulders the responsibility for the murder of peaceful protesters and called for an international investigation.
However, three statements by the Sudan Liberation Movement – Minni Minnawi (SLM-MM), Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) and the SPLM-N Agar denounced the inertia of the hybrid peacekeepers who are tasked with the protection of civilians.
“How come the UNAMID calls for restraint while it knows that what happened is not (clashes between government forces and internally displaced) as its statement claims. UNAMID knows this is an unprovoked attack by the government militias,” said Minni Minnawi.
Minni Minnawi, the chairman of a Sudan Liberation Movement group condemned the “barbaric and savage massacre” in Kalma
” The UNAMID should swiftly move to protect the civilians and not keep sending wrong signals suggesting to vindicate the perpetrators,” he stressed.
JEM spokesperson Jibril Bilal also recalled the UNAMID to play its role in the protection of civilians in Darfur, adding that “the South Darfur state government and President Bashir who are the eyewitness to the crime shoulder personally the responsibility of the shooting on the displaced people”.
Bilal further said that the incident is a continuation of the targeting of defenceless civilians and in line with the government policy of close the IDPs camps, and to forcing the displaced to receive the president, despite their refusal to receive him through demonstrations against the visit.
For his part, the SPLM-N Agar Secretary-General called on the international community to hold the Sudanese government responsible for the death of civilians stressing that the massacre was committed” in front of the eyes and ears of UNAMID”.
“This massacre, unlike the others, is being committed in the presence of General Bashir, under his supervision and while he is 1 kilometre away from Kalma camp,” he said adding “We call upon the UN Security Council to hold the government of Sudan responsible and to provide adequate civilian protection for the people of Sudan, especially in the war zones”.
Kalma camp whose residents are almost from the Fur tribe witnessed in the past several confrontations with the government forces. On 25 August 2008, the government forces killed over forty displaced people who objected a weapons search operation in the camp.
At the time the government repeated described the camp as the hideout of armed groups.
In a statement released late on Friday, the South Darfur government accused armed elements in the camp of firing on the security forces tasked with the protection of the site of al-Bashir’s rally in Belil locality not far from the largest IDPs camp in the state.
“Displaced persons opposed the visit of President al-Bashir opened fire from inside Kalma camp on the joint security force with Kalashnikov, Grinov and Dshk machine guns, as well as grenades”.
The government further said one soldier was seriously injured in his head as result of the attack and three military vehicles were damaged.
The statement further said that two IDPs supporting the presidential visit were killed in the camp by those who are hostile to the government during clashes inside the camp.
President al-Bashir is touring the five states of Darfur in support of a weapons collection campaign and to show that the government forces are in full control of the region, weeks before a decision by the American administration on the permanent lift of sanctions.
Mauritanian Minister Highlights Country’s Successful Efforts To Combat Terrorism
After heavy fighting in 2010 and 2011, and despite a complex regional situation, Mauritania has faced the threat of terrorism successfully. “We have strengthened our defensive capacities while respecting human rights and putting in place a policy of sustainable development,” he explained. In addition, Mauritania has succeeded in building a constructive dialogue with the opposition and civil society, improving governance and reforming institutions, particularly with regard to women’s rights.
Mauritania, he continued, has reformed its legal frameworks on the basis of international agreements, in particular, to better combat terrorism. To this end, he noted the conclusion of agreements with some groups in order to allow their members to reintegrate into society in a productive way.
Mauritania, in collaboration with the International Organization for Migration (IOM), has eradicated illegal migration from its territory, the Minister continued. “We also set out a roadmap on the fight against terrorism, including through a social assistance program,” he said, adding that repatriation programmes have also been implemented for migrants, in order to enable them to return to the country under favourable conditions.
The Minister also spoke about the problems caused by climate change in the Sahel region. In this regard, he encouraged all parties to the Paris Agreement on climate change to honour their commitments in order to limit the impacts of the phenomenon.
Transitional Justice In Tunisia – A Painful but Necessary Step Forward
Recent public hearings of saw a painful period of collective introspection for the country’s people.
Tales of humiliations, torture, and rape committed over a near-60 year period—starting at around the time of Tunisia’s independence from France—were broadcast in eight live public hearing sessions from November 2016 to March 2017.
According to Refic Hodzic of the International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ), transitional justice processes generally take place in polarized contexts, in which there is resistance to change.
This has proven true in Tunisia, where the TDC and its chair have been the target of attacks by political and media leaders, mainly those linked to the old regime, over their operating costs and financial management.
Some have also criticized the choice of victims in the public hearings, arguing that the majority are Islamist activists, though, given that Islamists were the main oppressed group under the old secular regime, their over-representation here makes sense.
The hearings are the only publicly visible component of the commission, which has received 62,641 cases to date. It was established following the Tunisian revolution, which led to the removal of long-standing president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and initiated the wider Arab Spring.
Tunisia was unique among Arab nations in seeing a peaceful transition to a democratic system.
Six years into this process, Tunisia has successfully written a new constitution, held two rounds of free and fair legislative elections, and democratically elected a president. It is now following the lead of other countries who have gone through major political upheavals.
Based on investigations, testimony-gathering, and archival research, truth commissions were instrumental in the successful transitional periods of countries such as Argentina, Peru, and South Africa.
The TDC will produce a final report covering the period from 1955-2013, during which the successive oppressive administrations of Habib Bourguiba and Zine El Abidine Ben Ali turned Tunisia into a police state under one-party-rule.
The regimes imposed routine restrictions on freedom of speech, the press, and association, and relied heavily on intimidation, arbitrary arrests, beatings, torture, residential restrictions, and travel controls, alongside systemic corruption and economic marginalization.
Among the many women who spoke at the recent hearings was Latifa Matmati. Although her husband Kamal Matmati was killed in 1991, she only learned of his fate in 2011. For 20 years, she brought clothes to the police station where she believed he was held captive; for 20 years, the police did nothing to stop her.
Sami Brahim, meanwhile, told of his experience of abuse and torture while in jail: “All the prisoners were stripped, the young and the elderly. For an entire week, everyone was kept naked.”
He said that he was ready to forgive his torturers, but that forgiveness must be accompanied by an explanation of why he was subjected to these activities.
After giving the floor to the victims, the TDC does indeed plan to have torturers testify, to explain the mechanisms that fueled the repression.
The hearings were an eye-opening experience for many Tunisians who didn’t know such abuses were taking place. Under the old regimes, information was tightly controlled and only those affected or linked to the victims were aware of what was going on.
According to Salwa El Gantri, ICTJ’s Head of Office in Tunisia, it is “difficult to make those who were never victims, who never had any links to victims, understand victims’ suffering and victims’ rights.”
The public hearings’ main purpose is thus to ensure those detached to hear the truth directly from the victims.
Despite millions tuning in via television, radio, and social media, it is still too early to assess the real impact on Tunisian society.
Beyond a widely shared sense of high emotion, the reactions have been diverse. While most Tunisians appreciated learning about the abuses directly from their victims, some have argued that it was the wrong time for the hearings to occur, as Tunisia faces more pressing issues, such as a stagnating economy, high corruption, and continuous terrorist attacks and other security threats.
While no one can deny the urgency of the various challenges Tunisia is facing and will continue to face for the next few years, compromise on the full implementation of the transitional justice is only likely to diminish efforts to prevent human rights abuses from repeating.
Successful democratic transitions require deep change to occur on multiple fronts and concurrently.
As its work continues it will be of paramount importance for the TDC to assess the effectiveness of its operations and make any necessary improvements.
It should also keep up and even increase its communication efforts. This will help restore and maintain its credibility and relevance among the public, and challenge negative perceptions on the transitional justice process, as well as reform and democratization more broadly.
The successful creation of the pillars of the democratic transition was a remarkable achievement in a region crippled by an acute lack of individual freedoms, unemployment, corruption, war, and terrorism. To stay on track, ambitious reforms will be necessary.
Continued progress on transitional justice can help in this process, by improving the institutions that were once complicit in the abuses, primarily the police and judiciary.
If nothing else, the public hearings have successfully initiated a constructive national debate on these issues. They have also made some degree of contribution to repairing the population’s trust in justice and the ongoing transition.
Following his public testimony, Sami Brahim reported receiving thousands of letters and messages of support, while one of the TDC commissioners, Ibtihel Abdellatif, described the hearings in terms of a seismic event—“not an earthquake that destroys, but an earthquake that builds.”
This article was originally published by the Global Observatory of the International Peace Institute.
UN Approves Morocco’s Human Rights Program Despite Criticism by NGOs
Rabat – The United Nations’ Human Rights Council (UNHRC) has accepted Morocco’s response to the recommendations of its Universal Periodic Review, delivered on September 21 in Geneva by Mustapha Ramid, Minister in charge of Human Rights.
While many states lauded Morocco’s commitment to human rights, commending the kingdom’s decision to accept the majority of UNRHC’s recommendation, for many NGOs, Morocco still has a long way to go.
Ramid’s presentation, in which his stated that “Morocco appreciated the interest given to all institutional reforms during the review, which it had pursued by amending the constitution,” was applauded by countries including Afghanistan, China, Azerbaijan, and Egypt.
“Morocco fully supported 191 out of 244 recommendations, 78 percent of the total number of recommendations, including 23 recommendations that were fully implemented; 44 recommendations were taken into consideration, and 9 recommendations were not accepted as they did not fall within the mandate of the Human Rights Council,” said Ramid during the speech.
The minister also explained that the kingdom’s total or partial rejection of certain recommendations was based on “compliance with the principles and provisions of the Moroccan Constitution and ratified international Conventions.”
Among these rejected recommendation are the death penalty, women’s rights, LGBT rights, and the family code, which for Ramid were red lines Morocco will not cross.
Ramid Under Fire
Ramid’s response on these “red lines” brought him under the fire of many national and international NGOs.
The National Human Rights Council (CNDH) was the first to take the floor after the positive feedback delivered by the participating countries. The CNDH expressed its disappointment to see that the government led by the PJD did not accept all the recommendations, reiterating its opposition to the death penalty and support for its abolition in Morocco.
Egypt Knocks Off South Africa, Becomes No1 Investment Destination In Africa
Egypt has replaced South Africa and made it to the top of “Where to invest in Africa in 2018” list released by the Rand Merchant Bank (RMB)
South Africa is now second on the list. RMB said in a report, “Egypt displaced South Africa because of its superior economic activity score and sluggish growth rates in South Africa, which have deteriorated markedly over the past seven years.”
The top ten investment destinations include Morocco in the third place and Ethiopia in the fourth place.
In November 2016, Egypt started its economic reform program backed by the IMF after it had taken several measures, including the imposition of Value Added Taxes (VAT) and gradual removal of subsidies, to receive a $US 12 billion loan.
Fighting Rages In Sabratha As Delegation From Central Libya Arrives For Reconciliation
A man from Sabratha was killed and his wife is in critical condition after a random shell fell on their car on Friday as fighting between the city’s warring groups continues for the 6th consecutive day.
Local news reports said heavy clashes renewed on Friday between fighters of ISIS Fighting Operations Room and the 48th Battalion, both groups are under the Ministry of Defense of the Presidential Council.
Eyewitnesses said a fire broke out at a local resident’s house due to a random shell.
Elders from Misrata, Khomis and Zliten arrived in the city on Friday to reconcile between the two armed factions after the failure of the truce brokered by neighboring towns of Zawiya and Zintan two days ago.
Sources said the delegation arrived in the afternoon and will hold meetings with Sabratha elders and representatives from the warring groups in a bid to ease rising tensions.
Meanwhile, Chief of Sabratha Military Council has sent an urgent call to the UNSMIL and international organizations to intervene and evacuate the illegal immigrants from detention centers.
Algeria – 12 Years After In Terrorist Strongholds, Extremist Surrenders
Algeria- An armed Algerian extremist left terrorist strongholds and surrendered to local military authorities after spending 12 years in the ranks of extremist groups.
Meanwhile, the Algerian army command announced dismantling thousands of anti-personnel mines, dating back to the French colonial period between 1830 and 1962.
On its official website, Algeria’s Ministry of National Defense described the terrorist who surrendered on Sunday in El Milia as “dangerous.”
“D. Fares” aka “Abu Osama,” who had joined terrorist groups in 2005, had a Kalashnikov type machine gun, ammunition and a pair of binoculars, said a statement from the Defense Ministry.
The Ministry neither did mention the organization to which the terrorist belonged nor the crimes he may have committed while operating; however, the most famous extremist groups is known as al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb, formerly known as the Salafist Group for Preaching and Combat (GSPC).
In this context, the Ministry launched again an appeal to remaining terrorists to seize the opportunity and benefit from the regulations in force, like those who surrendered to the security authorities.
Geingob Urges World Leaders To Resolve Western Sahara Issue
Windhoek-President Hage Geingob has reminded the world that the protracted Western Sahara issue still needs sorting out.
Namibia has on many occasions undertaken not to tire in its quest to see Morocco, which was recently re-admitted into the African Union (AU), give up its illegal occupation of Western Sahara.
Geingob made the call in Windhoek yesterday when he addressed a conference of the African-European party dialogue of socialists and democrats, aimed at overcoming inequality as a political challenge.
“I don’t know why socialists are quiet. We are not assisting those who want to get their independence. In Europe and Africa, we are not helping them [Western Sahara] to get self-independence. We don’t hear [anything] it’s only Southern Africa. Why are you quiet?” Geingob asked.
The president is hopeful that Europeans and other African nations will follow Namibia’s stance to stand up against Morocco’s occupation of Western Sahara.
Geingob has on many occasions spoken out in support of the right to self-determination of the people of Western Sahara, following similar stern demands by National Assembly Speaker Professor Peter Katjavivi and International Relations Minister Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah.
In an interview with New Era, Katjivivi echoed Geingob’s stance for the global community to stand up and speak out in support of the people of Western Sahara.
He revealed that members of the Namibian parliament are due to attend the Inter-parliamentary Union (Union) Conference in Russia in October, where they will make sure to push the agenda for self-determination for the people of Western Sahara.
“All member parliaments are going to be there. We are interested to see that the voice of the people of Western Sahara is heard. There is the danger now that Morocco has been campaigning for and pushing its own agenda and basically trying to undermine the solidarity and support being extended to the people of Western Sahara. We cannot afford to undermine the push for freedom and independence for the people of Western Sahara,” Katjavivi told New Era yesterday.He explained it is in that context that he welcomed Geingob’s stance in reminding the world that the question of Western Sahara and Palestine is still outstanding.
“This in our view is unfinished business that the international community must address so that they too can gain their sovereignty. I really want to see delegates pushing that agenda,” Katjivivi noted.
Geingob said Namibia has a longstanding history in its relationship with European progressive movements.
During Namibia’s struggle for independence, he said, many organizations across Western Europe and Scandinavia stood in solidarity with Namibians in their struggle against apartheid South Africa.
He explained that they offered material and diplomatic support which helped shed light on Namibia’s plight to many people in Europe, leading to a groundswell of public support for the abolition of apartheid and the independence of Namibia.
“The years of Africa’s struggle against colonial rule were tumultuous. The world was in a state of Geo-political flux, caught between two superpowers engaged in an economic, military and ideological tug of war. The bipolar environment led to a situation in which several proxy wars ignited across the world and Africa found itself caught in the middle of this ideological impasse.”
Throughout this political malaise, he added, European progressives maintained their unwavering commitment towards Namibia’s struggle for independence
But with the gain of political independence, Geingob said, the struggle is not complete. He therefore said there is a need for their support in completing Namibia’s struggle for economic independence.
Egypt – Central Sinai, Anti Terror Military Raid, 7 Killed, 3 Arrested
The Egyptian military has carried anti-terrorist operations in Sinai on Monday.
The military spokesperson said that the military killed seven terrorists including two “leading members of terrorist groups,” in North Sinai in a statement published on social media.
He also said in a separate statement that three terrorist suspects were arrested in central Sinai.
In both operations together, the spokesperson said it destroyed vehicles and motorcycles, a tunnel, and cannabis farms, in addition to dozens of “terrorist dens” where they found computers and material used to manufacture explosives.
Several photos of the operations were published. They included one photo of the three arrested suspects and a photo of the tunnel. The tunnel was reported to have been discovered in the border zone, among other tunnels reported to have been destroyed every month.
In 2014, the military began working on a buffer zone in Rafah by removing residents’ houses with the aim of securing the borders with Gaza and putting an end to terror.
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